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口齿不清是在儿童言语发育的过程中形成的一种发育迟缓,经过及时纠正是可以克服的,但如果不及时消除问题,有部分儿童会慢慢形成不良发音习惯,吐字不清,形成较严重的语言障碍,产生阅读困难,影响学习成绩,甚至影响到孩子长大成人后的工作和生活。
儿童智力正常但语言迟缓或说话不清的原因主要有三种:

1.听力问题;

2.构音器官异常;

3.儿童心理行为问题。

可表现为单独或多种言语和言语能力异常,包括听力、讲话能力、理解语言能力、表达语言能力和语言程序处理能力。

对这样的孩子,首先要进行听力检查,排除听力障碍。现在的听力筛查技术可以在婴幼儿生后3天进行听力检测,在其3个月内明确其听力状况,并能在咿呀学语前(1岁内)进行听力康复,强化语言训练。而不至于到孩子2~3岁甚至更晚时,由于不能讲话或讲话不清,才发现听力不好,这时孩子的舌肌已较僵硬,大脑语言发育的高峰期已过,让孩子从感知声音、感知语言、理解并会正常说话,道路会漫长而艰辛。

其次是因家庭语言环境差造成的孩子开口困难(功能异常),常见情况是父母昼夜忙于工作,把孩子托付给老人或保姆看护,不常交流,家庭缺乏充分的情感、母爱等感官刺激或过分溺爱和约束等,同时家庭中南方话和北方话并存,都会导致孩子理解困难,表达困难,影响语言发育,一般经个体化语训和家庭指导后就发音清晰了。

再者是儿童心理行为问题,例如儿童孤独症、口吃、选择性缄默症等,则需要到专业医院诊治。

专家也提醒年轻的父母,一定要注意与孩子进行良好的情感沟通交流,在发现自己的孩子有这样那样的语言问题时,要引起足够重视,早期鉴别,寻求医务人员的帮助,让孩子在家庭、学校、医院、社会的共同关注和爱护下孩子健康成长。
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